Publication Ethics

The journal strives to uphold the highest standards of publication ethics and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices. It also believes that ethical publishing requires the active participation of all parties (authors, reviewers, editors, and publisher) involved in the act of publishing to agree upon standards of expected ethical behavior. Based on the guidelines recommended by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the journal has developed international standards for publication ethics for all these parties. The journal expects all the parties to commit to these standards.

International Standards for Authors
All authors who submit their papers to the journal are expected to observe the international standards for authors.

1- All authors must certify that the submitted manuscript is their original research. Plagiarism, falsity, fabrication, duplicate, redundant publications or other inappropriate manipulation are strictly forbidden.
2- Authors must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published and is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere. 
3- All authors must conduct the research in a responsible and ethical manner that complies with relevant legislation and applicable industry rules and guidelines.
4- Upon discovery or notification of inaccuracies or significant errors in the submitted manuscript, all authors must  notify the Journal editor-in-chief or publisher to retract or correct the paper. 
5- All authors must identify all sources used in the creation of the submitted manuscript, including proper acknowledgement of the work and/or words of others and citation of relevant publications. 
6- Authors must notify the journal of any conflicts of interest.

International Standards for Reviewers
All the journal's reviewers are also expected to meet the international standards for reviewers when they accept to review invitations.

1- All reviewers must review and evaluate the submitted manuscripts in fairness based upon its originality, significance and relevance without any favoritism or bias based on the origin of the manuscript, the author’s race, gender, ethnicity, citizenship, origin, sexual orientation, religious beliefs.
2- All reviewers must provide the Editor-in-Chief with their professional credentials, education and experience that represent their expertise truthfully and accurately.
3- All reviewers must ensure sufficient time to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the submitted manuscript in a timely manner prior to consenting to the review assignment.
4- All reviewers must refuse to review the submitted manuscript that create any potential conflict of interest to the publisher and seek advice before they proceed further with manuscript review.
5- All reviewers must offer reviews which are impartial and constructive, devoid of any inflammatory, libelous, hostile, unfair, or derogatory comments.
6- All reviewers must preserve the confidentiality of unpublished manuscripts and refrain from discussing any details of the manuscript with anyone (including the authors) during and after the peer review process.

International Standards for Editors
All editors of the journal are expected to observe the international standards for editors.

1- All editors must accept or reject the submitted manuscript on the basis of its journalistic or scholarly merit, which includes its originality, clarity, importance and relevance to the journal’s mission.
2- All editors must maintain objectivity when reviewing the manuscript and act without favoritism or bias based on the origin of the manuscript, the gender, national origin, race, ethnicity, political or religious beliefs, sexual orientation, or age of the author, or on the grounds of any commercial considerations.
3- All editors must adhere to the regulations which govern any conflict of interest and improper use of unpublished manuscripts as peer reviewers.
4- All editors must oversee the performance of both authors and peer reviewers, and ensure that authors and peer reviewers understand their roles in the process of reviewing manuscripts.
5- All editors must follow editorial policies which promote honest, comprehensive, and ethical reporting.
6- All editors must guarantee the confidentiality of unpublished articles and anonymity of peer reviewers.
7- All editors must pursue serious and alleged misconduct in the process of writing, submitting, accepting and/or rejecting, reviewing the submitted manuscript, for the purpose of protecting the integrity of the journal. Editors must also reject any manuscripts that raise any concerns about potential misconduct, making considerable efforts to ensure a full investigation is carried out and the issue resolved.
8- All editors must communicate corrections, retractions and/or revisions, if any, to the publisher, and in the case of an unpublished article also to the author upon identifying major errors or material omissions in the submitted manuscript.

International Standards for Publisher
The publisher is expected to observe all international standards.

1- The publisher must uphold strict standards of publication ethics to preserve the integrity of the journal.
2- The publisher must offer the institutional support and provide useful resources needed to publish original and accurate manuscripts, including, as necessary, specialized legal counsel and review for issues of libel, infringement and copyright. 
3- The publisher must ensure clear policies are in place to give guidance, address and resolve editorial conflicts of interest.
4- The publisher must stop publishing any content that is not in accordance with these Standards for Publication Ethics.
5- If and when the need arises, the publisher must publish corrections, revisions, clarifications, retractions, and apologies promptly, and with due prominence.