International Research Journal of Advanced Science 2021-08-25T08:52:31+00:00 Dr. Ahsan Nazir Open Journal Systems <p style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">International Research Journal of Advanced Science (IRJAS) publishes peer-reviewed research in all areas of the chemistry, physics and biology. The main objective of the IRJAS is to provide a platform for researchers, academicians, professionals and scholars to impart and share knowledge in the form of high quality original research and review articles. The journal strives to maintain high academic standards and an international reputation through the suggestions of the international advisory board. Through open access publishing, our aim is to bring research and knowledge to the widest possible audience. </p> Comparing the growth of renewable energy sources in Turkey, Iran and Iraq 2021-08-01T15:59:22+00:00 Jameel Al-Naffakh Mohammed R. Al-Qassab <p>Fossil fuels are the primary energy source in most countries of the world, especially since the beginning of the industrial renaissance. Increased consumption of fossil fuels produces greenhouse gases, which significantly negatively impact the environment and human health. As a result of these disadvantages, the world needs to search for alternative low-carbon energy sources. The article focused on the amount of renewable energy generation in Turkey, Iran and Iraq from the collection of statistical data from 2010-2020. Turkey occupied the clear progress to benefit from renewable energy sources, followed by Iran and Iraq. The percentage of annual growth of power generation based on hydropower in Turkey, Iran and Iraq (71.4%, 28.5% and 0.1%) respectively. About other renewable energy sources, Turkey had the largest share in generating energy from wind and solar energy, with an annual growth rate of (88.03%, 98.22%), respectively. Finally, renewable energy can be considered a promising energy source for future generations when countries determine correct planning policies.</p> 2021-08-13T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Jameel Al-Naffakh, Mohammed R. Al-Qassab Finite element analysis of masonry walls reinforced with expanded steel plates 2021-08-16T16:23:58+00:00 Bawar Othman Zeynep Yaman <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-size: 10.0pt; line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif';">Existing commercial software (such as ANSYS or other similar software) can be used to efficiently model complicated masonry walls, according to the results of the study. The numerical simulations and calculations used in this study helped to improve our understanding of the structural response of unreinforced and TRM-strengthened masonry walls subjected to diagonal compressive. Masonry constructions are made up of masonry units (brick, stone, marble, etc.) that are joined together using mortar. The models are implemented in ANSYS software to simulate the structural behavior of a tested wall in literature. Brick and mortar are modeled separately in the micro model. The results obtained in the micro modeling and are inconsistent with the experimental study in the literature. The model is implemented in ANSYS and then used to simulate the structural behavior of a group of walls previously tested in a laboratory. The results obtained with the proposed model are in good accord with those obtained in laboratory tests for the five walls considered.</span></p> 2021-08-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Bawar Othman, Zeynep Yaman A review analyzing what is COVID-19, its causes, pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and treatment 2021-08-25T08:52:31+00:00 Mohamed Hoosen Suleman <p>The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is believed to be the causative agent for the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19). The COVID-19 disease which also started from bats had mutated and it is believed to have infected pangolins as its intermediate host. Mutations of the viral pathogen thereafter led to it infecting humans. COVID-19 is considered a zoonotic disease i.e. diseases that spread from animals to humans. Community transmission from human to human has largely contributed to increasing infection rates across the globe. When the novel coronavirus was first detected, it took just 69 days to infect 100000 patients, then increased to 200000 in 12 days, then 300000 in 4 days, and 400000 days in less than a day. As of 1 September 2021, there are well over two hundred and seventeen million cases worldwide. Of concern, at least four and a half million confirmed COVID-19 deaths have been recorded as of 1 September 2021. The World Health Organization (WHO) has advised that the COVID-19 pandemic is far from over.</p> 2021-09-07T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mohamed Hoosen Suleman Effects of Tobacco on the respiratory system with reference to COVID-19: A Review 2021-08-24T11:37:57+00:00 Mohamed Hoosen Suleman Jaspreet Singh <p>The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a lower respiratory tract disease that has negatively affected the health and well-being of millions globally. World Health Organization (WHO) has since declared COVID-19 a pandemic. The highly contagious virus spreads via respiratory droplets and aerosol particles when people cough, sneeze or talk close to others. The effects on the lungs include inflammation, fluid accumulation, reduced gaseous exchange, hypoxemia, and tissue necrosis. As the virus affects the respiratory system of humans, there are many assumptions as to whether or not smoking increases the threat of COVID-19. Tobacco use kills up to half of its all-time users, with current predictions estimating that more than 1 billion people could die from tobacco use in the 21<sup>st</sup> century. This study aims to unpack the pathological effects of tobacco smoking on the respiratory system and explore the potential impact of COVID-19 on the lungs of smokers. This is a review article that is based on secondary information collected from various sources such as published and unpublished Journal Articles, Newspapers, Books, and Reports from various Government Organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations, and Commissions.</p> 2021-09-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Mohamed Hoosen Suleman, Jaspreet Singh